EU migration, border management and asylum
The current unprecedented refugee and migratory crisis has revealed that the EU is experiencing an acute implementation deficit and that several enforcement and implementation discrepancies remain at the national level. The EU AFSJ and, in particular, migration, border management and asylum policies have recently been amended and strengthened with a clear trend from decentralized enforcement towards developing more and more forms of transnational (i.e. the European Migrant Smuggling Centre of Europol, the reinforced cooperation of the AFSJ agencies on the ground through the hotspot approach, the Justice and Home Affairs Agencies network, etc.) and centralized enforcement (i.e. the transformation of Frontex into the European Border and Coast Guard, Easo into the European Union Agency for Asylum, the reinforcement of the mandate of Europol, etc.) Due to the predominantly operational nature of migration, border management and asylum policies, the EU decentralized agencies stand out as the mode of administrative governance, specially indicated for providing technical expertise, exchanging information, and coordinating the operational activities of the Member States. To what extent have the recent changes, including operational powers being conferred across different administrative levels, and agencies, promote effective enforcement in this area?