Jean Monnet Network on enforcement of EU law (EULEN)

YRP Projects

Legislative differentiation and its impact on enforcement (by Michael Hübner)

Michael’s PhD research is about differentiation in EU legislation (e.g. national discretion). Traditionally, EU legislation was based on a model of European integration with uniform legal standards. However, the landscape of European legislation has gradually become much more heterogenic. Most notably, it includes discretion for Member States and individuals. This seems in line with (or may function as an alternative to) the now prevailing EU integration model of “Differentiated integration”. This research project evaluates the various forms and reasons of differentiation in three legislative areas (EU data protection law, EU consumer protection law and Economic and Monetary Union law) and the implementation thereof in the Member States’ national legal order (with the Netherlands, Germany and Ireland as country studies).


Michael Hübner –

University of Utrecht